U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate concrete foaming agent.
Introduction to CLC Concrete Foaming Agent
There are two general cement-based foaming materials, one is chemical foaming, that is, through the chemical reaction of aluminum and other aerating agent and alkali in cement to produce gas; Another is physical foaming, through surfactants and mechanical stirring action to produce gas to join cement foaming. Relatively, chemical foaming is more stable and reliable, and more suitable for large-scale promotion.
CLC Physical Foaming Agent
Clc physical foaming agent or cellular lightweight concrete physical foaming agent is an additive which can reduce liquid surface tension and produce a large number of uniform and stable foam, in order to produce foam agent lightweight concrete.
The foaming agent is a kind of substance that can make its aqueous solution produce a lot of foam when mechanical force is introduced into the air. This kind of substance is the surfactant or surface-active substance. The essence of the foaming agent is its surface activity. Without surface activity, it cannot foam.
CLC Chemical Foaming Agent
Chemical foaming, that is, aluminum and other aerating agent reacts with the cement alkali to produce gas foaming.
Aluminum is a very active metal, which can react with water to replace hydrogen in the effluent and form strong alumina. The surface of aluminum particles exposed to air has been oxidized by oxygen in the air, forming an inert protective film of aluminum oxide, which prevents the contact of aluminum with water.
There is a certain amount of alkaline substances in aerated concrete slurries, such as calcium hydroxide and alumina, which can be dissolved in an alkaline solution to produce metaluminate. When the oxide film on the surface of the aluminum powder is dissolved, the aluminum reacts with water to replace the hydrogen in the effluent and form gelatinous aluminum hydroxide. But it, like alumina, prevents the water from touching the surface of the metal, preventing the reaction from proceeding. But aluminum hydroxide can also dissolve in an alkaline solution to form metaluminate. In this way, in an alkaline solution, the aluminum can continuously react with water to form hydrogen gas until it is used up. And hydrogen gas to approximately spherical bubbles, evenly distributed in the slurry, the slurry volume expansion, hardening to form porous silicate products. The aerating agent used in aerated concrete is mainly active aluminum powder. Of course, the active aluminum powder is specially treated. Because active aluminum powder in the natural environment will occur oxidation and lose activity.
Aerated concrete is a new building wall material made of cement, fly ash, lime, and foaming agent through mixed reaction and steam autoclaved. The pores evenly distributed inside make this material very light, and enable it to block sound, and it also has good heat insulation performance. Most of all, it's made of concrete, so it's very strong. Therefore, aerated concrete has the advantages of lightweight, high strength, heat preservation, sound insulation, and fire prevention.
Precautions When Using the Chemical Foaming Agent:
1. The foaming speed should be appropriate, the quality of concrete will be affected no matter if it is too fast or too slow.
2. The generated hydrogen bubbles should be small in diameter and evenly dispersed. Especially in the full volume of cement slurry pouring mold, it is necessary to disperse evenly to ensure the quality of the pouring mold.
3. The condensation and solidification of cement should not be affected when gas is generated. If the cement setting delays, it will lead to cement strength decline or produce an abnormal cement setting phenomenon.
Suppliers of Concrete Additives
TRUNNANO is a reliable foaming agents supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development.
If you are looking for high-quality CLC foaming agents, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (email@example.com)
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. TRUNNANO will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
New Delhi: India's Oil Ministry recently conveyed its intention to five national oil companies including Indian Oil Corp and Bharat Petroleum Resources LTD to assess the possibility of buying shares in Russian oil projects sold by European and American oil majors.
Bp announced it would give up its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the Russian oil company. ExxonMobil said on March 1 that it would exit about $4 billion in assets and terminate all of its Russian operations, including the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia's far East.
India's oil ministry has asked the overseas investment arm of India's Oil and Gas Corporation to consider buying ExxonMobil's 30 percent stake in the Sakhalin 1 project in Russia's far East. ExxonMobil is the operator of the project and Indian companies already have a 20 percent stake in the project.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk concrete foaming agent are still very uncertain.
Cuprous oxide is a bright red powder, almost insoluble in water, decomposed into divalent copper and copper in acidic solution, and gradually oxidized into black copper oxide in humid air. Commonly used as a pigment, biocide and antifouling agent in…
Copper oxide,chemical formula CuO. It is a black oxide of copper,slightly amphoteric and slightly hygroscopic.The relative molecular mass is 79.545,the density is 6.3～6.9 g/cm3,and the melting point is 1026℃.…
Sodium myristate is ultra fine white powder, it has excellent lubricating, dispersing and emulsifying ability.…