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What is The Hardest Material on Earth?

According to statistics from China Chemical and Physical Power Supply Industry Association, China's export volume and export value of lithium-ion batteries have continued to increase. In 2021, China's exports of lithium-ion batteries were 3.428 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 54.34%. The export of lithium-ion batteries was 28.428 billion DOLLARS, up 78.34% year on year. 

From the battery export destination, so far. China's lithium-ion batteries are mainly exported to the Asia Pacific and the United States and other places. In terms of price, the price of boron nitride,graphene, led by lithium-ion batteries, is expected to expand globally. 

Of all the materials discovered or created on earth, diamond is the seventh hardest. There are six materials being harder than diamonds.
 
6. Wurtzite boron nitride
Besides carbon, many other atoms or compounds can form crystals, and boron nitride is one of them. The combination of boron and nitrogen, fifth and seventh on the periodic table, can produce a variety of possibilities, including amorphous, hexagonal (similar to graphite), cubic (similar to diamond but less structurally strong), and wurtzite.
The last of these is extremely extreme, but also extremely hard. The substance is formed during volcanic eruptions, and so far only very small amounts have been found, so we can't test its hardness experimentally. But the latest simulations show it can form a different type of lattice, tetrahedral rather than a face-centered cube, and 18 percent harder than diamond.
 
5. Lansdale stone
If there are no impurities in the blue Adele stone, its strength and hardness will be better than pure diamond. 
Imagine a carbon-rich meteorite hurtling through the atmosphere and colliding with the earth's surface. You might think that a meteorite falling at high speed would become extremely hot from the inside out, but in reality, only the outer layers of a meteorite get hot. The inside is still cool.
But at the moment of impact, the pressure inside the meteorite would exceed any reaction on the surface, causing the graphite in the meteorite to compress into a different crystal structure. The new structure is not a cube-like diamond, but a hexagonal crystal system that is 58 percent harder than a diamond. Although bluestelle stone often contains a lot of impurities in practice, resulting in hardness lower than fossils; in theory, if a meteorite made of pure graphite with no impurities hit the surface, the resulting material would be far harder than all diamonds on Earth. 
 
4. Dyneema
Dyneema is the strongest fibrous material known to man. 
Puma is a thermoplastic polyethylene polymer with high molecular weight. Most molecules we know of are only a few thousand atomic mass units, but UHMWPE's chains are so long that one molecule can weigh millions of atomic mass units.
With such a long chain of molecules, the interactions between molecules are greatly enhanced, resulting in a material that is naturally hard to overlook. The material has the highest impact strength of any known thermoplastic and has been called the strongest fiber in the world, outperforming any anchor rope or tow rope on the market. Not only does it weigh less than water, but it’s also bulletproof, and it's 15 times stronger than its steel equivalent.
 
3. Palladium micro-alloy glass 
Palladium micro alloys are the best-known materials for combining high strength and toughness. 
All physical materials have two important properties: strength and toughness; Strength refers to the force required for a material to deform, and toughness refers to the force required for a material to fracture or break. Most ceramic materials are of great strength and have insufficient toughness. It is easy to be broken when clamped too tightly or accidentally dropped. Rubber and other elastic materials are just the opposite, although not easy to break, but very easy to deformation, hardness is very low.
Most glass materials are fragile, with high strength and low toughness. But in 2011, researchers created a new type of micro-alloy glass that contains phosphorus, silicon, germanium, silver, and palladium. Palladium forms shear bands that allow the glass to deform under stress without breaking. The material's combination of extreme strength and toughness not only beats steel handily, but no other material on this list comes close. In short, it's the hardest carbon-free material in the world. 
 
2. Bucky paper
Bucky paper made of carbon nanotubes can block the passage of particles larger than 50 nanometers in diameter. It has unique physical, chemical, electrical and mechanical properties. Although it can be folded or cut, the material is extremely strong. With no impurities at all, it can be 500 times stronger than steel of the same volume.
Since the late 20th century, a type of material called carbon nanotubes has enjoyed the reputation of being harder than diamonds. The material belongs to the hexagonal crystal system, the structure of the overall elliptic, more stable than any structure known to man.  If you combine lots of carbon nanotubes into a flat surface, you get a thin sheet of paper called bucky paper.
 
In addition to bucky paper, there is an equally hard structure called a buckyball, which consists of sixty carbon atoms bound together. Buckyballs are also natural materials that can form in certain cosmic environments. Although buckyballs have been used in the nanosphere, they haven't been quantified enough to be useful on a macro scale, so they don't make the list.
The nanotubes that makeup bucky paper, by contrast, are only two to four nanometers in diameter, but the structures are so strong that they can be combined into large sheets of material. It weighs only 10 percent as much as steel but is hundreds of times stronger. In addition, this material has fire resistance, high heat conduction efficiency, and outstanding electromagnetic shielding ability, which has rich application prospects in material science, electronic components, military, and even biological fields. But bucky paper can't be made of 100 percent nanotubes, so it didn't make the top spot.
 
1. Graphene
Graphene is the most basic structural element of carbon nanotubes, which are widely used. 
For its thickness, graphene is the strongest material known, with unrivaled thermal and electrical conductivity and a light transmittance close to 100%. The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Andrei Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their experiments with graphene.
 
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Southern Copper Corp (SCCO.N) recently said its Peruvian mine remained closed after a six-week standoff with protesters and blamed the Peruvian government for failing to intervene in the safety of its 1,300 workers and their families.  

The company said in a statement that a recent agreement to end protests at the Cuajone mine required the company to withdraw complaints against protest leaders because railways transporting minerals and supplies remained blocked. Production has been suspended since the end of February.  

Peru's Energy Ministry said in a separate statement that it had also reached an agreement with Southern Copper to start talks to find common ground with local communities.  

"If we shut down for a year, the government will stop receiving more than 3.1 billion soles ($830 million) in taxes and royalties, and 8,000 direct and indirect jobs will be lost. This is what we want to avoid, "Southern Copper added in the statement.

Peru has faced a wave of protests from indigenous communities, who accuse mining companies of not providing enough jobs and funding to poor local residents.  

Central bank officials said last week that protests against copper mines such as MMG's Las Bambas and Southern Copper's Cuajone were dragging down the economy.  

Peru is the world's second-largest copper producer and mining is an important source of tax revenue for the country. It is estimated that the supply and prices of the boron nitride,graphene will be influenced by that.

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